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“HR max” typically refers to Maximum Heart Rate (HR max). It is the highest number of heartbeats per minute (bpm) a person’s heart can achieve during intense physical exertion. It’s a fundamental measure used in exercise physiology, fitness assessment, and the prescription of exercise intensity. Knowing your HR max can help guide you along your exercise for proper intensity and tracking progress.

Why Should You Calculate HR Max?

Calculating your maximum heart rate (Max HR) can be useful for several reasons:

Exercise Prescription:

Knowing your Max HR helps fitness professionals and trainers design exercise programs that are tailored to your fitness level. It can be used to set target heart rate zones for different types of workouts (e.g., aerobic, anaerobic) to optimize the effectiveness of your training.


Understanding your Max HR can help you exercise safely. Exercising at too high a heart rate can lead to overexertion and potential health risks. By staying within recommended heart rate zones, you reduce the risk of overexertion or injury during exercise.

Monitoring Intensity:

It provides a reference point to gauge the intensity of your workouts. For example, you can use your Max HR to determine if you’re working at a high-intensity level during interval training or cardio workouts.

Progress Tracking:

Over time, you can track changes in your Max HR. A declining Max HR might be a sign of improving cardiovascular fitness, while a consistently high Max HR can indicate a need for adjustments in your training routine or potential health concerns.

Setting Goals:

If you have specific fitness or athletic goals, your Max HR can help you set targets. For instance, if you’re training for a marathon, you might aim to sustain a certain percentage of your Max HR during long runs.

Health Assessment:

In some cases, a significantly elevated or irregular Max HR can be a sign of underlying health issues. While it’s not a diagnostic tool on its own, it can be a useful data point when evaluating overall health.

Calculating HR Max

A common general calculation for determining HR max (MHR) is 220 – age. This formula is very generic and doesn’t take into account individual differences.

MHR = 220 – your age

For example, if you are 30 years old:

MHR = 220 – 30 MHR = 190 beats per minute

The preferred method is the Karvonen Method. The Karvonen method, also known as the Karvonen formula, is a more precise way to calculate target heart rate zones based on your maximum heart rate (MHR) and your resting heart rate (RHR).

This method takes into account your individual fitness level by factoring in your resting heart rate. Here’s how you can calculate your target heart rate zones using the Karvonen method:

  1. Determine your maximum heart rate (MHR) using the formula: MHR = 220 – your age.
  2. Measure your resting heart rate (RHR) by taking your pulse when you wake up in the morning before any physical activity. Count your heartbeats for 60 seconds.
  3. Calculate your heart rate reserve (HRR) by subtracting your RHR from your MHR:
    • HRR = MHR – RHR.
  4. Choose the intensity level for your workout, usually expressed as a percentage.
    • For example, 40-60% for low intensity, 70-80% for moderate intensity, and 80-90% for high intensity.
  5. Calculate your target heart rate (THR) for that intensity level using the following formula:
    • THR = (HRR * Intensity) + RHR
    • Where:
      • THR is your target heart rate.
      • HRR is your heart rate reserve (calculated in step 3).
      • Intensity is the desired intensity level as a decimal (e.g., 60% as 0.60, 70% as 0.70, etc.).
      • RHR is your resting heart rate (measured in step 2).

For example, if you’re 30 years old with an MHR of 190 beats per minute, a resting heart rate of 70 beats per minute, and you want to target a moderate-intensity workout (70% of your HRR):

  • HRR = 190 – 70 = 120
  • Intensity = 0.70 (for 70%)
  • THR = (120 * 0.70) + 70 = 84 + 70 = 154 beats per minute

So, your target heart rate for a moderate-intensity workout would be approximately 154 beats per minute.

You can download this spreadsheet to input your age and resting heart rate for easy calculations below:

Using the Karvonen method allows you to tailor your workout intensity to your individual fitness level and provides a more accurate guideline for achieving specific fitness goals. Remember to consult with a healthcare professional or fitness expert before starting a new exercise program, especially if you have any underlying health conditions.

Alternate to Calculating HR Max

The Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) scale is a subjective measure used to assess an individual’s perception of the intensity of physical activity or exercise.

The Borg RPE scale is widely used in exercise physiology, sports science, and clinical settings as a way to gauge how hard someone feels they are working during exercise. It’s a simple and valuable tool for individuals to self-assess their effort during physical activity.

Some exertion scales range from 1-10 while the Borg RPE scale typically ranges from 6 to 20, with a corresponding description of perceived exertion. Here’s a breakdown of the scale:

Participants are asked to choose a number from the scale that best represents how they feel during exercise. The number they select reflects their perception of the effort they are putting into the activity. For example, if someone is walking at a leisurely pace and feels that it requires very little effort, they might rate it as a 9 or 10 on the Borg RPE scale. If they are engaged in intense physical activity and feel like they are pushing themselves to their maximum, they might rate it as a 19 or 20.

The Borg RPE scale is particularly helpful for individuals who may not have access to heart rate monitors or other objective measures of exercise intensity.

By using the Borg RPE scale, individuals can better understand and communicate how they perceive the intensity of their workouts, which can be valuable for optimizing training programs, monitoring progress, and ensuring that exercise remains safe and enjoyable.