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There are various types of exercise, each offering different benefits for physical fitness and overall well-being. Many people tend to focus on one type of exercise and can easily neglect the other types, but they are all important to your health and well-being. No matter your age, each of these exercises can be modified to meet your level and fitness needs!

The four main categories of exercise are endurance, strength training, flexibility, and balance.


Although I am a physical therapist by profession, I am not your physical therapist.  This information is for educational purposes only, it does not constitute medical advice and does not establish any kind of therapist-patient relationship with me. I am not liable or responsible for any damages resulting from or related to your use of this information. Always consult with your healthcare provider prior to beginning any new exercise regime.


These exercises increase your heart rate and breathing rate, improving cardiovascular health and endurance. Endurance exercises are also known as aerobic or cardiovascular exercises. It is physical activities that are performed for an extended period of time and involve sustained moderate-to-high intensity. The primary goal of endurance exercise is to improve cardiovascular fitness and stamina.

Examples include:

  • Walking
  • Running
  • Swimming
  • Cycling
  • Dancing
  • Aerobic classes

The absolute best type of endurance exercise for you to do is one that you will actually DO. The more enjoyable an activity is, the more likely you are to want to engage in it and receive the amazing benefits of cardiovascular exercise. It’s also a great idea to vary the type of cardiovascular exercise that you do, but start slow and build the activities you enjoy doing. The American Heart Association and other health organizations recommend a minimum of 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise or 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity aerobic exercise per week. This can be spread out over several sessions to make this goal attainable.


This type of exercise focuses on building and strengthening muscles. It typically involves using weights, resistance bands, or bodyweight exercises like push-ups, squats, and lunges.

It’s important to target all major muscle groups in your routine. These include the legs (quadriceps, hamstrings, calves), core (abdominals, lower back), chest, back, shoulders, and arms (biceps, triceps). Balancing the muscle groups you work on helps promote overall strength and prevents muscular imbalances.

To continue challenging your muscles and promoting strength gains, gradually increase the number of repetitions (8-12 repetitions per set is a common range) and weight/resistance over time. However, always prioritize maintaining proper form and avoid overexertion. It’s a great idea to work with a Physical Therapist or Personal Trainer to begin and develop your routine.

Take short breaks (around 1-2 minutes) between sets to allow your muscles to recover before performing the next set. This helps maintain the quality of your movements throughout the session.

Aim for 2-3 sessions per week. For most individuals, performing strength training exercises 2-3 times per week is sufficient to see progress and maintain strength. This frequency allows for adequate recovery between sessions.


Flexibility exercises, also known as stretching exercises, are physical activities aimed at improving and maintaining the range of motion (ROM) and flexibility of muscles and joints. These exercises target the muscles and connective tissues, helping to increase their elasticity and length.

Flexibility exercises can be static or dynamic. Static stretching involves holding a stretch for a prolonged period, while dynamic stretching involves moving through a controlled range of motion. Both types offer benefits and can be incorporated into a well-rounded flexibility routine.

Stretching, yoga, and Pilates are examples of exercises that enhance flexibility. It’s important to note that flexibility exercises should be performed safely and with proper technique. Avoid bouncing or jerking movements during stretching, as this can lead to muscle strain or injury. Warm up your body before stretching with light aerobic activity to increase blood flow to the muscles.

Aim to include flexibility exercises in your overall fitness routine at least 2-3 times per week. This frequency helps maintain and improve flexibility. Consider incorporating dynamic stretching before your workout or physical activity as part of your warm-up routine. Dynamic stretching helps prepare the muscles for movement and can enhance performance. After your workout, include static stretching to cool down and help promote relaxation and recovery.


These exercises focus on improving balance and stability, which can help prevent falls and injuries. Examples include yoga, tai chi, and specific balance exercises like standing on one leg.

Balance exercises are physical activities that focus on improving stability, coordination, and proprioception (the body’s awareness of its position in space). These exercises help strengthen the muscles involved in maintaining balance and can reduce the risk of falls and injuries

When performing balance exercises, it’s important to prioritize safety. Make sure you have a stable support nearby, such as a wall or chair, in case you lose balance. Start with exercises that are appropriate for your current level of balance and gradually progress as you become more comfortable and stable. Aim for at least two to three sessions of balance exercises per week, but you can also incorporate balance training into your daily activities, such as standing on one leg while brushing your teeth or doing balance exercises during your warm-up or cool-down routine.

You can check out this article on home balance equipment for easy pieces of equipment you can use to help improve your balance.

Remember that it’s important to consult with a healthcare professional or a qualified fitness instructor before starting any new exercise program, especially if you have any underlying health conditions or concerns. They can provide personalized guidance based on your individual needs and goals.